Commerce and Industry

The enormous scientific advance is also noticed, new discoveries and new theories. The commerce, the industry had taken a great impulse. Also in the Philosophy we had great progressos. The Positivismo was in frank apogee. The arts had been developed thunderingly, reflecting characters of the new chain. The Realism originated in France and had as precursory some elements as Darwin with ' ' Theory of espcies' ' , Balzac, creator of the modern romance, Stendhal and Dostoievsky. All had contributed for the expansion of the chain.

The Frenchman Gustave Coubert painted two pictures: ' ' A burial in rleans (l85l), and ' ' The Swimmers (l853), showing the characteristics in the painting. In the Positivista Philosophy we go to find Augustus Comte. Also the ideas of Shopenhawer are spread out that did not believe the utopias. The style would go to firm itself with Gustave Flaubert that wrote ' ' Madame Bovary' ' (l857) launching of a time for all the bases of the Realism. 10.5.CARACTERSTICAS OF the REALISM: The realistic characteristics they have as base ' ' real' ' , ' ' razo' ' ' ' cincia' '. We will enumerate some characteristics of the Realism: 1.Cientificismo (everything is based on science) 2.Filosofia (Positivismo); 3.Uso of names and vulgar places; 4.Variados details simple 5.Personagens of the real life; 6.Fatos of the reality, the daily one; 7.Temas current; 8.Materialismo; simple 9.Estilo, clearly, objective; slow 10.Narrativa; 11.Apoio to the reason, science, intelligence; 12.Observao, analysis, critical; 13.Coisas and real facts. 10.6.REALISMO IN BRAZIL (1881-1893): The Realism was introduced in Brazil in way the intense agitations. This they go, in a way to another one, to influence in new the aesthetic one. Among the agitations, we can detach: The war of Paraguay, Abolition of the slavery; Republican ideas; Advance of the technique and science; Religious question (Expulsion of maons of the religious groups); Military question (emperor punishes officers for arguing military subjects public).