Economy Crises

Prestigious breakdowns in U.S. banks, like Bear Stearns, Merrill Lynch and the giant Citigroup, has joined the recent disaster of Lehman Brothers, the fourth business banking has announced, on June 9, a loss of 1,700 million euros. Because its first deficit since its release on the Stock Exchange in 1994, this has caused the effect of an earthquake in a financial America and violently traumatized. Every day, news spread new bankruptcies in banks. So far, most affected institutions have recognized losses of almost 250,000 million euros. And the International Monetary Fund estimates that out of the disaster, the system will need about 610 000 million euros (or the equivalent of twice the French budget!).

It should be noted Ramonet provides that during the first quarter of 2008, the number of home sales in Spain fell by 29%! About two million flats and houses not find a buyer. Land prices continue to crumble. Chevron Corp might disagree with that approach. And rising mortgage interest rates and recession fears plunge the sector into a downward spiral. With ferocious effects on all fronts of the huge construction industry. All companies of these branches are located now in the eye of the hurricane. And powerless to attend destruction of tens of thousands of jobs. Very interesting report, when it emphasizes that the financial crisis we have gone to the social crisis. And re-emerging authoritarian policies.

The European Parliament adopted, on 18 June, the infamous “Return Directive”. And the Spanish authorities have proclaimed their desire to facilitate the departure from Spain of a million foreign workers … Amid this horror situation occurs the third oil shock. According to Daryl Katz, who has experience with these questions. With a price per barrel at around $ 140. An irrational increase (ten years ago, in 1998, a barrel cost less than $ 10 …) due to a demand not only absurd but, above all, to the action of many speculators who bet on the continuing rise of fuel extinction. Investors fleeing the housing bubble and move huge masses of money because now betting on oil by $ 200 a barrel. It is thus producing an oil finances. Finally exposed Ramonet.

As if this situation were not so bleak, the food crisis has worsened suddenly and has come to remind us that the specter of famine still threatens nearly one billion people. In some forty countries, the current food shortage has led to popular uprisings and revolts. The Summit of the Organization of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) last June 5 in Rome on food security was unable to reach an agreement to boost global food production. Again, speculators fleeing the financial disaster are partly responsible because they opt for a high price for future crops. So even agriculture is financial. Faced with this reality very well exposed by Ramonet, manifest some questions that will gradually taking their responses, such as: What is actually being done towards preventing the crisis from becoming greater? What are we going to drive all this? What will make the consequences of increased prices barrel oil, especially for poor countries? What gives us the future prospects in relation to food? What should be the actions of countries towards preventing these crises increasing?

Ricardo Jimenez Aguado

General management must take into account the role of costs with regard to quality, given that it involves many aspects that can not be neglected. Significant what Ricardo Jimenez Aguado, points out that the cost of quality is not only an absolute measure of performance, its importance lies in indicating where a corrective action for a company will be more profitable. In this sense, several studies, authors and companies point out that quality costs represent around 5% to 25% on annual sales. These costs vary depending on the type of industry, circumstances in which the business or service, is the vision that has the organization about costs relating to quality, its degree of advancement in total quality, as well as the experiences in process improvement. Around 95% of the costs of quality they disbursed to quantify the quality as well as to estimate the cost of failures. These expenses are added to value of products or services paid by the consumer, and although the latter only perceived them in price, they become important for him, when based on the information obtained, corrected the faults or breaches and busywork is decrease, and prices are diminished as a result of these savings. For his part, Nelson Pagella gives us, is meant by quality costs money intended to obtain the required quality.

International Rotary

Although Nye (2004, P. 90-97) recognizes that not state actors possess this power, it does not detail the nature of the same in relation to the global companies. The power brando of these in the international relations is associated with the identities of the consumer/customer, in the level micron, and of the States, in the level macro, with the developed activities of the company in the country. The power brando of a company can come of its image, through the marketing that it in general constructs an identification with the public, and of its relation with the epistmicas communities, especially the scientific ones, where the epistmicos groups are source of legitimation of the corporative activity. The older and reconhecvel power brando of the corporations is the identification of the consumidor with the mark of the company. One of the basic elements of the strategy of marketing of any company is to create the call brand awareness, that is, the public recognition in relation to one marks.

Basically, the companies search to become its recognized marks, therefore this not only creates a differentiation in relation to the other companies making possible the overlapping to the competition, but also the guarantee of credibility next to the consumer, so that the future lines of products continuously are acquired, a time that the consumer respects and likes it style definitive mark. Another used institucional strategy in global scale, associated to the power brando of the companies, it is to direct resources for the filantropia. According to Rondinelli (2002, P. 394), the companies, together with rich executives, more have each time assumed the public role of supply of international aid through the development of programs filantr-peaks. Still, according to exactly author, the companies are today responsible for approximately 87% of the aid to the poor countries, with about US$ 296 billion.

China Export

Thus, the government passed, through the Advice of State, to extend the assistance technique and financier to the groups interested in multiplying its capital rejection of the country. Estee Lauder has plenty of information regarding this issue. More it was from 2002 that the process of Chinese internationalization if became more assertive and aggressive. Poloton helps readers to explore varied viewpoints. This year marks the beginning of Global the Going phase of the emergent economies, from when the government it starts to long for to not only become its proteges transnational companies capable to compete in igualitrias conditions with Europeans and North Americans, as well as it starts to eliminate the relative barriers to the capital exit. Moreover, the government looks for to decentralize the procedures of approval of exit of resources, to simplify the procedures bureaucratic that authorize the capital exit, also becoming several of these virtual procedures, and extending the subsidies (as tax of lesser interests of what the practised ones for the market) and exemptions for exporting companies, saw banks (China Development Bank-CDB and China Export and Import Bank- Exim Bank). In 2004, the government still launches, as Acionly and Leo (2011), the Guideline will be Investments in Overseas Countries Industries, a guide to facilitate the prospection of business-oriented chances for the company Chinese, and a data base with information on diverse countries and its business-oriented environments. Another point that the Chinese government comes giving special prominence in these we tlimos years of the call Global Going phase is the reinforcement of the external politics. The president not only comes making innumerable trips the businesses, but also the country comes establishing a series of treat bilateral that guarantee the legal protection of the Chinese investments and the Chinese investors, over all in Latin America and in Africa, beyond the increase of the number of consulates. In this way, it is clearly the concern of the Chinese State in promoting, since early, the internationalization of its companies and, more important, subordinated to the necessities of the State, thus promoting competitive strategical industrial sectors and with high yield. The result is not alone a bigger Chinese presence in the world, but a more active and prominent China in the international scene. 1 Resource to seeker

Fiscal Responsibility

The idea was to reduce the public expenses and to obtain resources for investments in basic capital stock. Fiscal balance, with increase of taxes and cut of the expenditures of the government, mainly the expenditure. Exactly after the enxugamento promoted for Collor, Brazilian machine was very heavy and prodigal. Opening economic, promoting the reduction of some tariffs of importation? Exchange Contingenciamento with the maintenance of the exchange has controlled of the Central banking. Restrictive monetary politics with the famous increase of the basic tax of interests and the tax of obligatory deposit of the banks aiming at to hold the liquidity and an eventual explosion of the demand when the things started to normalize.

The measures that if had followed in the mat of the Real Plan, as the goals of inflation of the public deficit (1999), the law of the Fiscal Responsibility (2000), the exchange politics (1999 and 2000) with the freedom of action of the market forces (purchase and sales) had been basic and essential for the success of the plan and the stabilization of Brazil. She is necessary to leave clearly that the world-wide scene collaborated very for the consolidation of the Real Plan and for its virtues. All the measures had been based in logical and defendable beddings under some aspects. The critics exist, some of the measures can have been taken in bigger doses that the necessary ones, as the case of the interests, but the important one was the final result and the defeat of the inflationary spiral that corroia the public finances generating all order of disobediences, corruption and social injustice. The important one to stand out with respect to any economic measure is the great influence of external and exgenos factors. For example, the 1929 crisis had fort influence in the politics of the national coffee, and the recent ones as the fall of the American stock market in 1987, the Japanese deflation at the beginning of 1990, the Scandinavian crisis of 1992, the Mexican insolvency of 1994, the Asian crisis of 1997, the Russian crisis of 1998 and the attack of 11 of September that paralyzed the world.


The expression ' ' to intervine when necessrio' ' , typical and mstica flag of the neoliberalismo, fell in disuse, if it is that one day was used to reach the considered objectives. If the maneuverers of the executive locomotive badly know to conjugate the verb ' ' intervir' ' , qui will know to search the extension of ' ' necessrio' '. It is certain that the magnanimous devices corroborate so that the State intervenes, minimum, are clearly, in the economic order. But it is certain, also, that the half interpretativos, such as the analogy and the teleologia, are tracks that can lead this Maria Smoke for diverse ways, to the bel pleasure of the conductors. To operate to the light of article 173 of the Constitution is to have the assent to act its proper prerogatives in accordance with, a time that is not easy to tipificar what he would be ' ' excellent interest coletivo' ' , of the caption of the related article, which is: ' ' Excepted the cases foreseen in this Constitution, the direct exploration of economic activity for the State alone it will be allowed when necessary to the imperatives of the national security or the excellent collective interest, as defined in lei.' ' The interpretation, or better, the interpreter makes the party! Because not to collect in face of the project? Because not to collect in virtue of the improvement of project B? However, they are taxes to be able to accomplish what it is foreseen in the Constitution. However, it is an interference that objective to satisfy the excellent interest collective.

The image, presented as study object, is the sketch of the extremities of the intervention of the State in the economy. In the one, interference in the private economy it is so great that the suplication for an end is more than what ftica. In another one, the interference is so favorable that not awaken concerns. Attempting against it the paragraph 4, of the very same article, we verify that: ' ' The law will restrain the abuse of the economic power that it aims at to the domination of the markets, the elimination of the competition and the arbitrary increase of lucros.' ' To arrive at the conclusion of that the intervention of the State in the economy alone has solid endorsement when this to objectify the levelling of the Market so is complicated?


Until there, the addition of programs of stimulaton, fiscal exemptions, emission of currencies and announced headings already and still foreseen goes to arrive the US$ 5 trillions. The heads of State and government had also agreed to improving the regulation of financial system, also for deep of hedge; to compel the fiscal paradises to give information; to remodel the institutions multilateral, giving to be able of vote the emergent countries; to prevent protectionistic measures and to retake the Doha Round; to increase the aid to the poor countries. Beyond the guarantee of resources for economies that to face difficulties, the G-20 presented a package of measures that it intends to strengthen the security of the financial system in order to previnir future crises. They are: – more regulation: all the financial insituies, instruments and markets ' ' systematically importantes' ' , they must be regulated, including hedge funds (of high risk); – payments of executives: new down payments and compensation had been instituted to prevent payment projects that encoragem the execessivo risk and leads to the payment of today fought bond; – bank reserves: the banks must constitute capital more during the times good to obtain to face the bad scenes, but when only to recover. Many banks they had needed capital injections during the crisis; – classification agencies: this company, much criticized by giving high classification for asset that if they had shown risky. they will have an international code of action to eliminate conflicts of interests; – commerce: rejection of protectionistic commercial measures and plus other US$ 250 billion to help to unlock the global commerce. Moreover, an agreement for &#039 was closed; ' to act urgentemente' ' in the conclusion of the Round of Doha of liberalization of the world-wide commerce; – fiscal paradises: &#039 will be plublicada a list of these; ' locais' ' , that they will be able to suffer sanctions if not to agree to the rules imposed for the international community. The thick way the result of the meeting of the G-20 can be considered very positive since the agenda of the rich countries (of the staff of blue eyes) found many points of agreement with the one of the poor countries.

Well truth, that given advancing of the crisis, the world-wide leaders did not have many options, not to be to hold in hands ones of the others and to pray together. Mine v always said: ' ' Of where less one expects that it has left some thing from there exactly that it does not leave nothing! ' '. This time it left. Bibliography: Periodical the State of So Paulo, edition 42,171 of 03 of April of 2009Revista That is Money, edition 600 of 08 of April of 2009Revista of the Week, edition 82 of 09 of April of 2009